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Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 1: We call Ourselves the Oyate) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (Introduction)

Chapter 1: We call Ourselves the Oyate - The Oyate are the native people of the upper Midwest, made up of seven tribes and three language (Lakota, Nakota, Dakota) groups. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)


Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

(Cheyenne River, Clifford Canku, Craig Howe, Native American Indian, Jerome Kills Small, language, Ione Quigley, Albert White Hat, SR., Lakota Dancers from Wacipi, Curtis Collection, Lakota Warriors, Bear Butte, Sioux, Lakota, Dakota, Nakota, Culture, miscommunication, Europeans, dialect, Ojibwa, Cree, Nadouessi, snakes people, Nadouessioux, interpreter, misunderstandings, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, OSEUS, OSEUS1, OSEUS2, OSEUS3, OSEUS4, OSEUS5, OSEUS6, OSEUS7)
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 2: The Seven Council Fires) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (Introduction)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 2)

The Seven Council Fires: The seven tribes routinely came together to maintain relationships. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
(OSEUS, OSEUS1, OSEUS2, OSEUS3, OSEUS4, OSEUS5, OSEUS6, OSEUS7)
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 3: The Origins of the People) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1 - land base)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3 - origin, oral philosophy)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5 - oral tradition)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 3)

The Origins of the People: The Oyate peoples’ traditional stories of their origins do not match those of Western science. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 4: Kinship Is Everything) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 4)

Kinship Is Everything: The role of family relationships in organizing Oyate life is paramount. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 5: The Sacred Hoop of Life) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 5)

The Sacred Hoop of Life: The Oyate's view all life as interrelated and express that symbolically through the circle. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 6: The Lakota Way-The Dakota Way) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 6)

The Lakota Way-The Dakota Way: The Oyate people lived in quite different geographical areas and climate, which caused them to live differently. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 7: The Dance of Life) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 7)

The Dance of Life: For the Oyate, music and the arts are very connected to how they experience the world; even their musical instruments have symbolic meaning. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 8: The Oral Tradition of the Oyate) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 8)

The Oral Tradition of the Oyate: Much of Oyate culture has been passed down orally through the generations, including songs, prayers, and storytelling. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 9: The Seven Rituals) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 9)

The Seven Rituals: A very spiritual people, the Oyate practiced many rituals, all of which derive from the receipt of the pipe. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter Number 10: Tiospaye) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 10)

Tiospaye: The extended family—the tiospaye—is central in Oyate society. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter Number 11: The Change) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 11)

The Change: Since their encounter with White settlers, the Oyate people and their cultural practices have undergone significant changes. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter Number 12: The Way Forward) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 12)

The Way Forward: The Oyate people continue to practice their cultural and spiritual ways in order to maintain their relationships with each other and nature. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Entire Program) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. Original music composed and performed by Lakota artist, Kevin Locke. (Website)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

Program Synopsis
1. We Call Ourselves the Oyate: The Oyate are the native people of the upper Midwest, made up of seven tribes and three language groups.
2. The Seven Council Fires: The seven tribes routinely came together to maintain relationships.
3. The Origins of the People: The Oyate peoples’ traditional stories of their origins do not match those of Western science.
4. Kinship Is Everything: The role of family relationships in organizing Oyate life is paramount.
5. The Sacred Hoop of Life: The Oyate's view all life as interrelated and express that symbolically through the circle.
6. The Lakota Way-The Dakota Way: The Oyate people lived in quite different geographical areas and climate, which caused them to live differently.
7. The Dance of Life: For the Oyate, music and the arts are very connected to how they experience the world; even their musical instruments have symbolic meaning.
8. The Oral Tradition of the Oyate: Much of Oyate culture has been passed down orally through the generations, including songs, prayers, and storytelling.
9. The Seven Rituals: A very spiritual people, the Oyate practiced many rituals, all of which derive from the receipt of the pipe.
10. Tiospaye: The extended family—the tiospaye—is central in Oyate society.
11. The Change: Since their encounter with White settlers, the Oyate people and their cultural practices have undergone significant changes.
12. The Way Forward: The Oyate people continue to practice their cultural and spiritual ways in order to maintain their relationships with each other and nature.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Introduction) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (Introduction)

Video clip includes the prologue and chapters 1&2.

Chapter 1: We call Ourselves the Oyate - The Oyate are the native people of the upper Midwest, made up of seven tribes and three language (Lakota, Nakota, Dakota) groups.

Chapter 2 - The Seven Council Fires: The seven tribes routinely came together to maintain relationships. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

(Cheyenne River, Clifford Canku, Craig Howe, Native American Indian, Jerome Kills Small, language, Ione Quigley, Albert White Hat, SR., Lakota Dancers from Wacipi, Curtis Collection, Lakota Warriors, Bear Butte, Sioux, Lakota, Dakota, Nakota, Culture, miscommunication, Europeans, dialect, Ojibwa, Cree, Nadouessi, snakes people, Nadouessioux, interpreter, misunderstandings, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, OSEUS, OSEUS1, OSEUS2, OSEUS3, OSEUS4, OSEUS5, OSEUS6, OSEUS7)

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