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Bridging the Gap: Native American Education South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (Introduction)

Bridging the Gap: Native American Education (Website)

Due to cultural differences and socio-economic conditions, the challenges facing Native American students are many. This video/teaching tool offers insight into the problems and possible solutions for educators of Native American young people. running time: 24:14 minutes

Program Synopsis
The program reports on statistics showing that the educational achievement of Native American students in South Dakota is below that of the averages for all South Dakota students. Next, several commentators describe various challenges facing Native American students, including language barriers, cultural differences, poverty, and lack of support at home. Representatives of the South Dakota Department of Education describe some statewide efforts to expand the teaching of the Native American experience across the school curriculum as well as specific educational programs that focus on improving student performance. The program also includes observations by a Native American high school teacher and high school students concerning their educational experiences.

Key Concepts
- In South Dakota, Native American student achievement is below that of all South
Dakota students.
- Native American students face many challenges in their educational experience,
including poverty, language barriers, cultural differences, and lack of home
support.
- The South Dakota government has launched efforts to address the educational
needs of Native American students and to expand the teaching of Native
American culture in schools.
- Many Native Americans believe that greater awareness of Native American
culture by schools would improve the experience and performance of Native
American students.

Program Interviewees
This program reports on the current condition of Native American education through the comments of South Dakota educators and students.

Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton
Wahpeton Reservation
Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge
Reservation, SD
Stella Littlem, Rapid City Central High School Student
Kolette Medicine, Oglala Lakota College Student
Michelle Mehlberg, Department of Education
Dr. Rick Melmer, Secretary, South Dakota Department of Education
Keith Moore, South Dakota Department of Education, Office of Indian Education
Stacy Phelps, Oglala Lakota College
Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux
Tribe, SD
Whitney Rencountre II, Black Hills State University Student
Audrey Terkildsen, Rapid City Central High School Student
Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University,
Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD
(OSEUS, OSEUS1, OSEUS2, OSEUS3, OSEUS4, OSEUS5, OSEUS6, OSEUS7)


By the People, For the People 106 Tribal Government Tip for viewing an imbedded player. Try the following to reduce pixilation when enlarging the video. Click “View” on the top of the browser, then click “Zoom”, then increase the size. I normally increase to a size between 250% and 300%, then scroll to the player. The player is larger and there is no pixilation. To reverse, click “View” and reduce to 100%.

Filmed entirely on location in South Dakota, this series encourages students to learn about and become involved in government by presenting information about those levels of government closest to "home." Students are afforded a compelling look at school boards, city government, the branches of state government and more. 20-minutes

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6, OSEU6)
Dakota Life: Bear Butte South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

SDPB Dakota Life
Bear Butte State Park

Bear Butte - Great Native leaders such as Red Cloud, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull all sought out the location known as Bear Butte for spiritual guidence. (05/05/2005)




Dakota Life: Bringing Back the Bow South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Bringing Back the Bow

In this segment, the Dakota Life crew heads to Eagle Butte for the "Bringing Back the Bow" program. This program teaches kids bow craftsmanship as well as archery basics. (heritage, camp, arrow, reservation, Cheyenne River, responsibility, Bridger, hunters, challenges, tradition, art, volunteer, teepee, mechanics, earn, make, accomplish, culture, Lakota, elders, values, respect, generosity, teach, target) (Air Date: 11/05/2009)

Dakota Life: Contemporizing Tradition South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
South Dakota Arts Council
Sioux Indian Museum

Contemporizing Tradition - Contemporary Native American Artist Randall Blaze lives on Cuny Table on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. His artwork reflects Native American Tradition, but in a contemporary way. His art work includes Acrylic oil painting, Bronze Sculptures, Ceramics and Metal Smithing. (11/03/2005)


Dakota Life: Crazy Horse Journalism South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Freedom Forum Diversity Institute

Crazy Horse Journalism - An opportunity for Native American high school students to explorer higher education options and careers in journalism. The annual workshop is held on the campus at the Crazy Horse memorial near Custer. (01/05/2012)


Dakota Life: Kevin Pourier – Buffalo Horn Artist South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Kevin Pourier – Buffalo Horn Artist

Kevin Pourier has been shaping jewelry and spoons from buffalo horns since 1992. He received a scholarship to study at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington and spent time on the east coast researching buffalo horn artifacts. (Pine Ridge, Native American, Black Hills, career, art, artist, tradition, culture, fine arts, contemporary, craft) (Airdate 11/06/2008)
Dakota Life: Native American Artist Joanne Bird South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)

SDPB Dakota Life
Joanne Bird

A Style Of Her Own - Joanne Bird of Bushnell has earned national recognition for her unique paintings and sculptures. The Native American artist is represented in the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, D.C. (01/01/2004)



Dakota Life: Native Gardens South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Dakota Digest: Native Gardens Project
CDC What is Diabetes?

Native Gardens - The loss of the buffalo was devastating to the Native American tribes who depended on the animals. A major food source was gone and some believe that the food supply in the early days of the reservations led to serious health problems that linger to this day. Now, a project to bring back the traditional Native American diet on the Standing Rock Reservation is growing garden by garden. (01/06/2011) (Native Garden Project, gather, hunter, diabetes, Standing Rock, diabetic, Gladys Hawk)




Dakota Life: Nellie Two Bulls South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
South Dakota Public Broadcasting's Celebrating Native America Culture Page

It is impossible to know how many lives Nellie Two Bulls has influenced. She was referred to as "Grandma Nellie" by thousands. She sang in Kevin Costner's "Dances With Wolves" movie and at a service on the east coast to celebrate Robert F. Kennedy's life. She was a sacred repository for the songs and stories of the Lakota People. Her voice evoked the old days but resonated with all who listened to her in these changing times. She was the 2006 Spirit Award winner.

(SDPB Air Date: 05/03/2007)
Dakota Life: Preserving the Sioux Language South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Association on American Indian Affairs
South Dakota Public Broadcasting's Celebrating Native America Culture Page

The future survival of Sioux languages like Lakota, Nakota, and Dakota is uncertain. A group on the Lake Traverse Reservation is working to ensure its language will be alive and well. A special Scrabble game in the Sioux language has been developed. The game is part of the tribe's campaign to revitalize the Dakota Language. (tradition, Indian, Native American, culture, pictograph, winter count, elders, translate, Waubay, tribe, Enemy Swim, Dakota Scrabble)

(SDPB Air Date: 01/04/2007)

Dakota Life: Red Cloud Art Show South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Red Cloud Museum

Red Cloud School near Pine Ridge holds an annual Native artist art show. The show has helped many artists from different tribes launch careers in art. The Red Cloud Heritage Center Museum has more than 2,000 permanent pieces and is considered one of the finest collections of Native art in the region. The Red Cloud Indian School on the Pine Ridge Reservation is a place where education, spirituality, cultural pride, and art converge to inspire lives. (education, Native American, Indian, artifact, heritage, history, heritage center, painting, painter, reservation)

(SDPB Air Date: 09/06/2007)

Dakota Life: Sicangu Lakota Artist Mike Marshall South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Sicangu Lakota Artist Mike Marshall

In this Dakota Life segment we head to Mission to meet artist Mike Marshall. Mike builds traditional Lakota games and crafts, and incorporates all natural materials in his works. In his paintings, however, Mike is always pushing himself to explore new methods and materials. (art, create, Sinte Gleska, reservation, colors, pictograph, ledger, Amos Bad Heart Bull, Pine Ridge, hunt, outdoors, feathers, antlers, culture, dolls, travois, batik, dyes, wax, landscape, Red Cloud Indian School, buffalo robe, heritage, museum) (Air Date: 01/07/2010)


Dakota Life: Sioux Messengers South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

SDPB Dakota Life
Code Talkers in American Military History
Local Heroes

Sioux Messengers - Meet a man who's actions during World War II echo through history. Sixty two years ago he helped save the lives of American soldiers by speaking his native tounge. (09/02/2004)

Dakota Life: St. Mary's Boarding School South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

SDPB Dakota Life
Bon Homme County: County Government Records

St. Mary’s Boarding School for Indian Girls operated from 1873 to 1986. Many of the graduates are very proud of their former school and have moved on to very successful lives. (12/10/03)


Dakota Life: The Baker Brothers South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

Untold Stories - Mount Rushmore: Telling America's Stories
SDPB Dakota Life
Badlands National Park
Mount Rushmore National Memorial
The National Parks America's Best Idea

The Baker Brothers In this Dakota Life segment, we'll meet brothers Paige and Gerard Baker. After a lifetime of crossing the country, the brothers have found themselves right in each other's backyards, both working as Park Superintendents. Paige works at Badlands National Park and Gerard works at Mount Rushmore National Memorial. Watch this amazing story as we learn how the brothers went from boys at Fort Berthold Indian Reservation to holding prestigious positions in the National Park Service. (culture, role model, education, Native American, Indian, Lakota, Nakota, Dakota, Fort Laramie Treaty, history, Custer Battle Field, Little Big Horn Battle Field, employee, career, family, Mandan, Hidatsa, tradition, controversy, Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Project, multicultural, Great Sioux Reservation, Black Hills) (Air Date: 09/03/2009)
Dakota Life: The Quilt Maker South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)

SDPB Dakota Life

The Quilt Maker - Jeff Audiss is a Native American artist who has developed his own unique style of quilting vibrant and sybolic quilts. In this segment, we get a chance to watch him at work and learn how he developed his style. (01/01/2004)
Dakota Life: Traditional Art - Michael He Crow South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Dakota Life
Crazy Horse Memorial
Made in South Dakota

A South Dakota craftsman working at the base of Crazy Horse Monument and keeping alive traditional craft techniques. (01/06/2005)





Dakota Pathways Episode 12 - Maps and Borders (Clip) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Dakota Pathways: Maps and Borders (Dakota Pathways Resources/ Watch Entire Program) Even before the white man entered the upper mid-west region of the United States, borders have marked the various territories of the people living in the region. With the advancement of the white culture those borders have become less fluid. Even so, the borders of South Dakota have changed with the times. This episode looks at how borders have affected our growth as a state and influenced how we live.

(Verendrye Plate, Indians, Native Americans, French-British War, Louisiana Purchase, War of 1812, Dakota Territory, State Borders, Allotment Act, Homestead Act, of Napoleon Bonaparte, Lewis and Clark, satellites, USGS EROS Data Center, Independence Peace Garden, survey, explorers, cartography, Manuel Lisa, France, Spain, Lincolnland, reservation, Fort Laramie Treaty, Star Spangled Banner)
Dakota Pathways Episode 19 - Telling Stories (Clip) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

Dakota Pathways: History and Legend (Dakota Pathways Resources/ Watch Entire Program)
South Dakota's history is filled with a wide variety of stories to be told and story-tellers to tell them. From Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin) to Laura Ingalls Wilder; from L. Frank Baum, to Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, South Dakota has been graced with fine authors and great story-tellers. This episode takes a look at several of them and even reenacts some of their stories.

(Jean Patrick, Badger Clark, Native American, Indian, Trickster and the Troll, National Humanities Medal, Little House on the Prairie, Old Indian Days, Charles Eastman, Wizard of Oz, By the Shores of Silver Lake, survey's house, Paul Goble, The Lost Children, Discontented Gopher, Nancy Veglahn, The Buffalo King, Pamela Hill Smith, Ghost House, stories, books, legend, fiction, nonfiction)
Dakota Pathways Episode 20 - A Dark Day South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Dakota Pathways Resources

There is no darker day in South Dakota History than December 29, 1890, the day of the massacre at Wounded Knee. On this dark day, eighty-four Minneconjou men, forty-four women, and eighteen children died on the frozen plains of South Dakota. Thirty-one of the 470 Cavalry soldiers at the scene also died. What led up to this horrible day? Why, were so many women and children slaughtered in what was, at first, called a battle and later became known as a massacre? This episode looks at both sides of the story and tries to make sense of it all. It also looks at what this incident has meant to the Lakota people for the past one-hundred plus years. It does not take sides, but rather, tries to explain the cause and effects of this dark day in our history.

(The Ghost Dance, confrontation, culture, Native American, Indian, dime novels, Richard Pettigrew, Indian Agent, Daniel Royer, Standing Rock, Marie Fox Belly, Lost Bird Society, Little Big Horn, Colonel James W. Forsyth, Ghost Shirt, Ghost Dance, reservation, Cheyenne River, US Army 7th Calvary, Chief Big Foot, Chief Sitting Bull, Pyramid Lake Reservation, Paiute People, September 11th, Twin Towers, traditional, culture, 1973 Wounded Knee, buffalo, Pine Ridge, treaty, war party)
Dakota Pathways Episode 8 - History and Legend (Clip) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

Dakota Pathways: History and Legend (Dakota Pathways Resources/ Watch Entire Program) Much of the history of the state has generated legends and stories of bold adventurers and evil desperadoes. This episode examines the myths and legends and attempts to separate out the true history from the tall tales. Wild Bill Hitchcock, Calamity Jane, Hugh Glass and Jesse James are just a few of the characters investigated in this program.

(Native American, Indian, Enemy Swim, Winyanpaha, Thoen Stone, tall tale)
Dakota Pathways Episode 9 - People of the Bison South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

Dakota Pathways Resources

The Lakota, Nakota and Dakota people have long made this region of the country home. The bison or buffalo played a major role in their lives. From the buffalo they got hides for their teepees, bones for their tools and meat for their food. And even spirit for their souls. As the bison migrated in the great circle of life, so did the people. They were, after all, people of the bison.

(Piece Pipe, Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, Powwow, warrior, Sioux, starvation, segregation, reservation, agencies, Native American, Indian, Hunter, Scotty Philip)
Evolution of Wajaje-Cokatowela Shirts (Power Point Presentation) Power Point Presentation - Evolution of Wajaje-Cokatowela Shirts, Victor Douville, Sinte Gleska University

“Click” Evolution of Wajaje Cokatowela Shirts.pps (lower left in the table below the player) **NOTE** The presentation downloads very slowly if you choose "Open". Please select "Save", and save the PowerPoint presentation to your desktop for a quick download.

Winter Count Lessons

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)
Importance of the Winter Count (audio only) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Audio Only - Victor Douville, Sinte Gleska University, explains the importance of the winter count.

Winter Count Lessons

Related lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations, lower left.
Lakota Land (Click Link in Description to Access Video) Lakota Land: Stories of the Pine Ridge Reservation (Produced by Oglala Lakota College)
Click HERE for Online Video Series

Program Synopsis
1. Oonaghazee: The stronghold
2. Tin’psila: The importance of the prairie turnip to the Lakota People
3. Wanblee: A Pine Ridge community
4. Kyle: A Pine Ridge community
5. Buffalo Nation: The importance of the buffalo to the Lakota People
6. Day School: Education in the early days of the reservation
7. Oglala: A Pine Ridge community
8. Slime Buttes: An important natural feature on Pine Ridge
9. Pine Ridge: A Pine Ridge community
10. Red Shirt: A Pine Ridge community
11. Mako Sica/ The Badlands: An important natural feature on Pine Ridge
12. The Bombing Range: 300,000 Reservation acres were used by the US Military during WWII
13. Yellow Bear Canyon: An important natural feature on Pine Ridge
14. Wounded Knee: A Pine Ridge community
15. Delphine Red Cloud: An interview with the late elder and descendent of Red Cloud


South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)
Lesson Plan: Accepting Responsibility Accepting Responsibility - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: All My Relatives All My Relatives - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Analyzing Dream Woman’s character in Ella Cara Deloria’s Waterlily Analyzing Dream Woman’s character in Ella Cara Deloria’s Waterlily - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Appropriation and Misappropriation of Indian Imagery - From Lakota Winter Counts to Indian Mascots Appropriation and Misappropriation of Indian Imagery: From Lakota Winter Counts to Indian Mascots - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Attacking Stereotypes - Lakotas Depicted in Hollywood Films Attacking Stereotypes - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Catching the Prey Lesson Plan: Catching the Prey

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Lesson Plan
(Lessons also found lower left - PDF)

Objectives:
• Participants will recognize the hunting challenges early Plains inhabitants faced.
• Participants will illustrate hunting challenges through role playing as hunter/prey.
• Participants will assess how their various senses help them in each role.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)

SDSHSLesson
Lesson Plan: Ceremonial Aspects of Lakota Culture - An Approach to Curriculum Development Ceremonial Aspects of Lakota Culture: An Approach to Curriculum Development - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Ceremonial Aspects of Lakota of Lakota Culture - Unit 1 Purification Lodge Ceremonial Aspects of Lakota of Lakota Culture: Unit 1 Purification Lodge - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Ceremonial Lesson Plan Ceremonial Lesson Plan - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Class Winter Count South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Winter Count Lessons

Lesson Plan: Class Winter Count

“Click” Lesson Plan and Score Sheet (lower left in the table below the player)

Background: A winter count is a pictographic record of historical/memorable events for a tiospaye (community). The pictures, which were used as mnemonic devices, are arranged in chronological order. Originally, the memorable events were recorded on rock (many paintings found on cave walls, canyons and mountains throughout the Great Plains), on buffalo hide, deer hide, cow hide, and then ledger paper and muslin (cotton fabric).

Each tiospaye designated a winter count keeper. The keeper (traditionally a man) of the winter count was the historian for the community. Elders would gather and consult with the keeper to select the most important event of the year (first snow to first snow). The keeper would then draw an image on the winter count to represent the event. The images on the winter count were used as a reminder/aide to help the keeper remember the events. The keeper (oral historian) could then explain the events in detail.

Additional background information and materials: Lesson Plan PDF - lower left

Procedure: During this lesson the students will create their own winter count image by identifying an important event that occurred in their lives during the school year. The students will present their winter count image to the class. Parents, guardians, and elders will be invited to attend the presentations. The presentation attendees and the students will choose/identify a Winter Count Keeper for the Class Winter Count. The chosen Keeper will record their image on the Class Winter Count.

Setup/Process
1. Each student will identify an important event that occurred, within the school year, in their life, at school or in the community. (Examples: State BB Championship, death of someone from the community, new school building, etc.)
2. The students will use paper or cloth to create their winter count image. (8.5”X11” – easy to scan)
3. Displaying the images for the presentations:
a. Scan/photograph the images
b. Place all of the images in one PowerPoint Presentation. (Larger poster boards could be used to make the original drawings if a PowerPoint program is not available for the presentations.)
4. Invite parents, guardians, elders, etc. to attend the presentations.
5. Have each student explain their image when it is displayed on the PowerPoint presentation. They should explain why they chose the event and how the image will help them remember the event in the future.
6. The attendees should make notes, of each winter count image, so they will be able to vote for their favorite image.
7. Each attendee should cast an anonymous vote for their favorite winter count image. Collect and tally the votes. (Traditional – not anonymous)
8. The student with the most votes will become the Winter Count Keeper for the year. They will record their image on a large Class Winter Count which should be displayed in a prominent location. Make a Class Winter Count out of a sheet or a large piece of paper. Lone Dog’s Winter Count is shown below for design ideas.
9. A new Keeper is chosen each year to add an image to the Class Winter Count.

What to expect: The students should realize that time and effort is taken to create an image that will spark the memory of the Keeper because the Keeper is responsible for providing an oral account of the images drawn. The Keeper of the winter count incorporates their personal history, artistic talent and visual interpretation of the event into their image. The attendees are the elders who help select/identify the most important event for the year
Lesson Plan: Constellations, Sacred Sites and the stories of the Oceti Sakowin Constellations, Sacred Sites and the stories of the Oceti Sakowin - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards

(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: Constellations, Sacred Sites and the stories of the Oceti Sakowin Constellations, Sacred Sites and the stories of the Oceti Sakowin - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Dakota, Nakota, Lakota Life (Beadwork Designs) Lesson Plan: Dakota, Nakota, Lakota Life (Beadwork Designs)

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Lesson Plan
(Lesson also found lower left - PDF)

Objectives:
• Participants will explain in their own words the relationship between beadwork and quillwork.
• Participants will identify eight designs used in Sioux beadwork.
• Participants will design their own beadwork pattern.

Background Information:

Porcupine quills are smooth hollow tubes with a barbed point on one end. After being colored with natural dyes, the quills were wrapped, braided, or sewn onto clothing and household objects. Quill designs used bars, oblongs and rectangles. Until white traders brought colorful beads to trade in the 1830s, quillwork predominated over beadwork.

The first beadwork was done in long, narrow bands using the same bars, oblongs and rectangles seen in quillwork. The squares and rectangles were often surrounded by a border of contrasting color. The bands of beadwork were used on leggings, robes and blankets, pipe bags, cradles and saddle bags. In the 1880s, Sioux beadwork designs adopted new elements. Elongated diamonds and pronged designs were used along with traditional rectangles, squares, triangles, and lines. The hourglass design also developed. A wider variety of colors began to be used, with green, yellow, and blue joining the favorite red. White was the most common background color with medium or light blue the next favorite background.

Activity Steps:
1. Share the background information with the group. Discuss:
- What was used to decorate items before traders brought beads?
- What kinds of designs were used in quillwork and early beadwork?
2. Give each participant a copy of the Beading Designs Worksheet to complete. When everyone has finished the worksheet, discuss:
Dakota, Nakota, Lakota Life
South Dakota State Historical Society Education Kit
- Do the design names make sense when you see the design?
- What are some of the designs that were inspired by natural things? (dragonfly, turtle, lightning)
- What are some of the designs inspired by manmade things? (tipi)
3. Have each participant use their crayons or markers to create their own beadwork design on drawing paper. They can use designs from the worksheet as well as the ones described in the background information – rectangles, oblongs, squares, triangles, diamonds and lines. Common beadwork colors would include red, blue, yellow, and green, but other colors may also be used

SouthSouth Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (OSEUS)

SDSHSLesson
Lesson Plan: Devils Tower and the Struggle Over the Protection of Sacred Lakota Sites in Nature Devils Tower and the Struggle Over the Protection of Sacred Lakota Sites in Nature - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Dream Pictures Dream Pictures - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Ecological, Geographical, and Cultural Importance of Pipestone, MN Ecological, Geographical, and Cultural Importance of Pipestone, MN:Completing the Circle of Prairie Life - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: Educational Aspects Educational Aspects - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Erasing Native American Stereotypes Lesson Plan: Erasing Native American Stereotypes

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Lesson Plan
(Lessons also found lower left - PDF)

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

SDSHSLesson
Lesson Plan: Establishment of the Four Winds Establishment of the Four Winds - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Everything is related - Lakotas and the buffalo. Everything is related: Lakotas and the buffalo - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Exploring Environmental and Spiritual Relationships in Lakota Art Exploring Environmental and Spiritual Relationships in Lakota Art - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)



Lesson Plan: Exploring Math, Science, History and Language Arts through Lakota Art Exploring Math, Science, History and Language Arts through Lakota Art - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7, OSEU7)
Lesson Plan: Han, Unci! Han, Tunkasila! Han, Unci! Han, Tunkasila! - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Historic and Contemporary Art of the Oceti Sakowin Cultures Historic and Contemporary Art of the Oceti Sakowin Cultures - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: How Big Is a Buffalo? Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

How Big Is a Buffalo? Coloring Sheet Activity
Lesson Plan / Buffalo Head Sections

(Lessons also found lower left - PDFs)

Objectives:
- Participants will identify and use six different colors
- Participants will follow written color cues to correctly color individual worksheets
- Participants will cooperate to place sheets in order needed to form a buffalo head

Extended Lesson: Buffalo Fractions
- Participants will examine a grid to answer math questions
- Participants will use visual clues to determine fractions
- Participants will practice reducing fractions

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

SDSHSLesson
Lesson Plan: How Many Jackrabbits Equal One Buffalo? Lesson Plan: How Many Jackrabbits Equal One Buffalo? (Animal Weight Comparisons)

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Lesson Plan
(Lessons also found lower left - PDF)

Objectives:
• Participants will identify five creatures that share a buffalo’s prairie environment.
• Participants will convert weight from pound to ounces to grams.
• Participants will compare weights and determine how many of each creature weigh the equivalent of one buffalo.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

SDSHSLesson
Lesson Plan: Hu’tanacute Hu’tanacute - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Integrity - A Lakota Value Integrity: A Lakota Value - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Interconnectivity of Lakota Language, Culture, History, and Place in Joseph Marshall III’s, The Day the World Ended at Little Bighorn - A Lakota History Interconnectivity of Lakota Language, Culture, History, and Place in Joseph Marshall III’s, The Day the World Ended at Little Bighorn: A Lakota History - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Lakota culture and preservation at the Duhamel Sioux Indian Pageant, 1934-1955. Lakota culture and preservation at the Duhamel Sioux Indian Pageant, 1934-1955 - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Lakota Ethnoastronomy Lakota Ethnoastronomy - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Lakota Kinship Lakota Kinship - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Lakota Kinship and Childhood Education Lakota Kinship and Childhood Education - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Lakota Values for the Classroom Lakota Values for the Classroom - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Lakota Winter Count Lakota Winter Count - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Additional Resources)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)

Lesson Plan: Lakota Winter Counts - An Alternative View of History Lakota Winter Counts: An Alternative View of History - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Additional Resources)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Ledger Art - Past-to-Present Ledger Art: Past-to-Present - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Mitakuye Oyasin and the Creation of the Universe Mitakuye Oyasin and the Creation of the Universe - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards

(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: Mitakuye Oyasin: All My Relatives Mitakuye Oyasin: All My Relatives - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: Oceti Sakowin in Present Day Society Oceti Sakowin in Present Day Society - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Oceti Sakowin, The Nine Tribes in South Dakota Oceti Sakowin, The Nine Tribes in South Dakota - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Oko Iyawapi, Week Count Oko Iyawapi, Week Count - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Additional Resources)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Oral Tradition Oral Tradition - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Origins and Ideals Origins and Ideals - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Passing on Lakota History through Writing Passing on Lakota History through Writing - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Pebble Patterns - Observation Skills (Hunting) Lesson Plan: Pebble Patterns - Observation Skills (Hunting)

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Lesson Plan
(Lessons also found lower left - PDF)

Objectives:
• Participants will observe and recreate visual patterns.
• Participants will recognize the importance of good observation skills in hunting.
South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)

SDSHSLesson
Lesson Plan: Quill Decorating Lesson Plan: Quill Decorating

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Lesson Plan
(Lessons also found lower left - PDF)

Objectives:
• Participants will identify natural resources used by the Plains Indians
• Participants will show how Plains Indians used natural items in decorating
• Participants will create an original art project

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)

SDSHSLesson
Lesson Plan: Rules to Live By Rules to Live By - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: Severalty Act Severalty Act - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: South Dakota Indian Reservations Today: Native Students South Dakota Indian Reservations Today: Native Students - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: South Dakota Indian Reservations Today: Non-Native Students South Dakota Indian Reservations Today: Non-Native Students - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)


Lesson Plan: South Dakota Tribes, Reservations and Capitals South Dakota Tribes, Reservations and Capitals - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: Symbols of the Heart Symbols of the Heart - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2, OSEU2)
Lesson Plan: The “Keeper” of the Count South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Winter Count Lessons

Lesson Plan: The “Keeper” of the Count

“Click” Lesson Plan, Event Cards and Event Cards List (lower left in the table below the player)

Background: A winter count is a pictographic record of historical/memorable events for a tiospaye (community). The pictures, which were used as mnemonic devices, are arranged in chronological order. Originally, the memorable events were recorded on rock (many paintings found on cave walls, canyons and mountains throughout the Great Plains), on buffalo hide, deer hide, cow hide, and then ledger paper and muslin (cotton fabric).

Each tiospaye designated a winter count keeper. The keeper (traditionally a man) of the winter count was the historian for the community. Elders would gather and consult with the keeper to select the most important event of the year (first snow to first snow). The keeper would then draw an image on the winter count to represent the event. The images on the winter count were used as a reminder/aide to help the keeper remember the events. The keeper (oral historian) could then explain the events in detail.

Background information and Materials: Lesson Plan PDF - lower left

Procedure:
During this lesson the students will learn about the keeper of the winter count by completing the activity below. The students will compete in a game by drawing images of events.
Setup/Process
1. Divide the class into groups of 4-5 students.
2. One student from each group should go to the whiteboard/chalkboard. Depending on board size, only 2-3 students may be able to draw at once. Rotate through groups to accommodate board size.
3. The students are the “keepers” of the winter count. Select an event card, see step 7. The students selected to draw the event should look at the card. The students should draw a representation of the event selected.
4. The keepers have 1-2 minutes to draw the image.
5. At the end of the time period – the facilitator will go to each group and pick up one answer, written on a piece of paper, from each group. Do not allow students to yell the answers, because it is impossible to assess which group said the answer first.
6. All of the groups with the correct answer will be given a point.
7. There are 55 events (5 each, for years 2000-2010) included on the following document. (Event Cards – the events were randomly selected)
a. The following list can be printed and given to the groups if they need assistance. (Event Cards List)
b. Make additional event cards for your area. (Example: the winning of a tournament, the death of a local elder/hero, etc.)
8. Continue selecting cards and rotating through all of the students so everyone has a chance to be the keeper.
9. Visit http://wintercounts.si.edu/index.html to view original winter counts.

What to expect: The students should realize that the images drawn on traditional winter counts are not drawn in a hurry like in the game. Time and effort is taken to create an image that will spark the memory of the keeper because the keeper is responsible for providing an oral account of the images drawn. The game should reinforce the fact that the keeper of the winter count will incorporate their personal history, artistic talent and visual interpretation of the event into each image. This should be apparent by the variety of images drawn for the same event and how many of the students will not be able to identify the event drawn.
Lesson Plan: The Buffalo People The Buffalo People - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: The Mato Tipila Question: A Critical Examination of Sacred Places on Public Land The Mato Tipila Question: A Critical Examination of Sacred Places on Public Land - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: The Sioux Act of 1889 The Sioux Act of 1889 - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6, OSEU6)
Lesson Plan: Three Dimensional Design with Elements of Lakota Culture Three Dimensional Design with Elements of Lakota Culture - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)

Lesson Plan: Traditional Lakota Foodways and Feasting Traditional Lakota Foodways and Feasting - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1, OSEU1)
Lesson Plan: Trickster Paper Sculpture Trickster Paper Sculpture - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Tuktel Yati He / Tuktel Yati Hwo Tuktel Yati He / Tuktel Yati Hwo - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Two World Views Two World Views - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6, OSEU6)
Lesson Plan: U.S. History Winter Count U.S. History Winter Count - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Additional Resources)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Understanding How History and Geography Affected the Dakota Culture - How We Develop Identity Through Geographical Location and Knowledge of Family, Organization, and History Understanding How History and Geography Affected the Dakota Culture: How We Develop Identity Through Geographical Location and Knowledge of Family, Organization, and History - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Understanding the Importance of Relationships in Lakota Culture Understanding the Importance of Relationships in Lakota Culture - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Understanding Traditional and Contemporary Oglala Lakota Governance Understanding Traditional and Contemporary Oglala Lakota Governance - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Tribal Government Video)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6, OSEU6)
Lesson Plan: Value of Lakota Storytelling Value of Lakota Storytelling - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Values in Lakota Society - The Role of Kinship Values in Lakota Society: The Role of Kinship - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4, OSEU4)
Lesson Plan: Vine Deloria, Jr. & Black Elk Speak - Recorded Lakota Visions as Artful Literary Expression Vine Deloria, Jr. & Black Elk Speak: Recorded Lakota Visions as Artful Literary Expression - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3, OSEU3)
Lesson Plan: Web Quest–Federal Laws Affecting Indian People Web Quest–Federal Laws Affecting Indian People - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6, OSEU6)
Lesson Plan: Winter Count Winter Count - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Additional Resources)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Winter Count - An Introduction Winter Count: An Introduction - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Additional Resources)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Winter Count Dyes South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Winter Count Lessons

Lesson Plan: Winter Count Dyes

“Click” Lesson Plan and Chart (lower left in the table below the player)

Background: A winter count is a pictographic record of historical/memorable events for a tiospaye (community). The pictures, which were used as mnemonic devices, are arranged in chronological order. Originally, the memorable events were recorded on rock (many paintings found on cave walls, canyons and mountains throughout the Great Plains), on buffalo hide, deer hide, cow hide, and then ledger paper and muslin (cotton fabric).

The dyes used to record the images also changed over the years. Berries, clay, plants, roots, and buffalo gall (liver bile), blood and stomach contents were a few of the materials used to draw the images. During today’s investigation we will test the quality of several natural dyes/pigments by checking for clarity and deepness.

Materials:
Variety of fruits/berries (the students should be reminded that they should never eat anything during an experiment)
- Grapes (dark)
- Cherries
- Strawberries
- Mulberries
- Blueberries
- Etc.
- Glass/ceramic bowls (enough for each fruit/berry)
- Utensils (crush the fruit)
- White cotton cloth (old sheet cut into 4”X4” swatches)
- Mild liquid dishwashing detergent
- Clock with second hand or stopwatch
- Cotton swabs (Q-Tips) or brush
- Chart
- Paper towels
- Aprons/gloves (optional)

Procedure: During this activity the students will learn about natural dyes/pigments used to draw images on winter counts. The students will crush fruits and berries and then they will use the juice/dyes produced to paint cotton swatches.

Setup/Process
1. Collect the materials.
2. Crush the fruits/berries in separate bowls (remove the large pieces, leaving the juice).
3. Cut an old white sheet into 4”X4” cotton swatches.
4. Use a brush or cotton swab to paint a 1 inch diameter circle on the cloth. Each dye should have a separate cotton swatch.
5. Wait 10 minutes and then check for clarity (sharpness – defined edge) and deepness (range from dark to light).
6. Using the chart, mark clarity and deepness for each sample. Use a scale of 1-10, 10 being the sharpest and deepest.
7. Wash each sample in a mild mixture of water and dishwashing detergent. Wash each sample for 10-15 seconds. The scrubbing force, duration and action for all of the samples should be the same.
8. Place the swatches on paper towels to dry or hang dry. Let samples dry for 5-10 minutes.
9. Using the chart, mark clarity and deepness for each sample. Use a scale of 1-10, 10 being the sharpest and deepest.

What to expect: The students should realize that natural dyes work very well. Many of the fruits/berries tested will remain in the cloth for extended periods of time. The students may have experienced staining their clothing while eating fruits/berries. The students should also conclude that winter count images are durable but they can be prone to fading/breakdown over time due to environmental influences. Winter counts need to be protected to preserve clarity and deepness.

Extension: Each student could select an additional item like ketchup, mustard or chocolate syrup to test. Also, the natural dyes could be compared to compounds like permanent marker or tee-shirt paint.
Lesson Plan: Winter Counts - Waniyetu Wowapi Winter Counts - Waniyetu Wowapi: This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left. (Additional Resources)

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson Plan: Wohpe at the Y Wohpe at the Y: Ella Deloria Domesticates the Lakota Goddess-like Wohpe for Christian Children - This lesson can be accessed HERE or by clicking the PDF, lower left.

This lesson was not created by the SDPB, and therefore should be attributed to the person(s) who created them. Each lesson plan identifies the developer. All of the lesson plans were created by participants at the CAIRNS Approaches to Teaching Lakota Culture workshops from 2007-2012.

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5, OSEU5)
Lesson: Waniyetu Wowapi (winter count) - Recording the Past and the Future South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Winter Count Lessons

Lesson Plan: Winter Count - Recording the Past and the Future

“Click” Lesson Plan PDF for details and links (lower left in the table below the player)

Procedure: During this lesson the students will learn about the similarities and differences between winter counts and other methods of recording events like timelines, history books, scrapbooks, encyclopedias, journals/diaries and calendars. The students will develop a pictorial image of an upcoming event found on their family calendar. (K-5: Modify as needed for level of understanding and grade level.)

Background information and Materials: Lesson Plan PDF - lower left

Process The students will view (compare and contrast) winter counts, timelines, history books, scrapbooks, encyclopedias, journal/diaries and calendars. Then the students will bring a calendar from home and select an upcoming event. The students will select an event from the calendar and replace the text with a pictorial representation of the event.

What to expect: The students should realize that recording events on a winter count is one method of preserving history just like history books, encyclopedias, journals, timelines, etc. Important events are captured for future generations to learn about historical events. The students should also conclude that calendars are different because they are designed to record future events.
Lesson: Winter Counts (a closer look) - Power Point Presentations Lesson Plan: Winter Counts (a closer look)

“Click” Lesson Plan and PowerPoint Presentations - lower left in the table below the player (Advance through the sides slowly for the interactive to work properly) ***NOTE*** The presentations download very slowly if you choose "Open". Please select "Save", and save the PowerPoint presentations to your desktop for a quick download.

Winter Count Lessons

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Background: A winter count is a pictographic record of historical/memorable events for a tiospaye (community). The pictures, which were used as mnemonic devices, are arranged in chronological order. Originally, the memorable events were recorded on rock (many paintings found on cave walls, canyons and mountains throughout the Great Plains), on buffalo hide, deer hide, cow hide, and then ledger paper and muslin (cotton fabric).

Each tiospaye designated a winter count keeper. The keeper (traditionally a man) of the winter count was the historian for the community. Elders would gather and consult with the keeper to select the most important event of the year (first snow to first snow). The keeper would then draw an image on the winter count to represent the event. The images on the winter count were used as a reminder/aide to help the keeper remember the events. The keeper (oral historian) could then explain the events in detail.

Procedure: During this lesson the students will learn about the images drawn on winter counts by completing the activity below. During the activity the students will compare their own pictorial representation of an event with the original keeper of the winter count.

Setup/Process
1. Open the first PowerPoint presentation - Winter Counts (a closer look) **NOTE** The presentation downloads very slowly if you choose "Open". Please select "Save", and save the PowerPoint presentation to your desktop for a quick download.
2. The students will view textual representations of winter count images and the “Collector’s Notes” for each image.
3. The students are the “keeper(s)” of the winter count. Have the students draw their representation of the event chosen by the elders. (Option: Have 2-4 students draw their representations on the board (rotate through all of the students))
4. PowerPoint - Advance to the original image created by the keeper.
5. Compare the keeper’s representation with the students’.
6. Continue advancing through the slides. (2 PowerPoint presentations, each with 10 images)
7. Make additional slides:
a. Visit: http://wintercounts.si.edu/index.html
b. Click: Lakota Winter Counts –Online Exhibit-
c. Click: Skip Intro
d. Click: View Winter Counts
e. Click: Overview
f. Select Image
g. Click: Collect This Winter Count
h. Click: My Winter Count
i. Enter Email Address – Images will be sent to your address
8. Visit http://wintercounts.si.edu/index.html to continue looking at original winter counts.

What to expect: The students should realize that the keeper of the winter count is also a historian for the tiospaye (community). The keeper is responsible for providing an oral account of the images drawn. The images should be drawn to help spark the memory of the keeper.

The students should also realize that the keeper experienced the event, which would make recalling the memory much easier. It would be interesting to return (after a few weeks) to some of the images drawn by the students to see if they can recall the textual representations/“Collector’s Notes” of the events.
Live and Remember – The Solaris Lakota Project Live and Remember – The Solaris Lakota Project

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

Topics covered in program:
- Sweat Lodge Purification Ceremony (inipi)
- Song and Dance
- Oral Tradition
- Medicine and Spirit World
- Living Today (1980s)
- Spirituality (Eagle Dance/ Hoop Dance)

Dissolution of the Sioux Nation (map):
- Treaty of 1851: Lakota Territory (Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska)
- 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty: Great Sioux Reservation
- Agreement of 1876
- Act of 1889 Division of Sioux Reservation

Consultants/Interviews
- Stanley Red Bird
- Anne Medicine
- Mercy Poorman
- Ben Black Bear Jr.
- Ben Black Bear Sr.
- Norbert Running
- Albert White Hat
- Lloyd One Star
- Sandra Black Bear White
- Gerald Mohatt
- Victor Douville
Lost Bird of Wounded Knee South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Lost Bird of Wounded Knee Website

In the spring or summer of 1890, Lost Bird was born somewhere on the prairies of South Dakota. Fate took her to Wounded Knee Creek on the Pine Ridge Reservation on Dec. 29, 1890.

On that tragic day, hundreds of Lakota men, women and children died in a confrontation with U.S. troops and the woman who likely was the child’s mother was among them. But as she was dying, she and her baby found some scanty shelter from the bitter cold and wind in the bank of a creek.

Four days after the massacre, a rescue party found the infant, miraculously alive, protected by the woman’s frozen body.

The infant was passed from one person to another and her sensational story attracted the attention of powerful white men. Eventually, this living souvenir of Wounded Knee ended up in the hands of a National Guard general.

Lost Bird was adopted by Gen. Leonard Colby and, without her knowledge or consent, his suffragist wife, Clara Bewick Colby. The baby’s original name died on the killing field, along with her chance to grow up in her own culture. She became. literally and figuratively, Zintkala Nuni, the Lost Bird.

So Lost Bird – Zintka, as her adopted mother called her – ended up the daughter of a very socially and historically prominent white couple. She had one big advantage – a mother who came to love her. Though Zintka’s adoption was a surprise to her, Clara Colby took on the duties of motherhood in addition to her work as a suffragette activist, lecturer, publisher and writer.

However, Zintka’s childhood was marred by her exposure to racism, possible abuse from adoptive relatives and the indifference of her father. Poverty entered into the mix when Gen. Colby abandoned his wife for the child’s nursemaid/governess and failed to provide adequate support for Clara Colby and Zintka.

The increasingly restless child endured miserable stays with relatives and at boarding schools and became harder and harder for her mother to control.

At age 17, Zintka was sent back to her father and his new wife in Beatrice, Neb. The result was disastrous. A few months later, Gen. Colby placed his now-pregnant daughter in a stark and severe reformatory. Her son was stillborn, but the girl remained in the facility for a year.

Zintka eventually returned to her mother. At one point, she seemed to have found happiness in marriage, but the relationship disintegrated when she discovered her new husband had given her syphilis, then incurable. She struggled with the effects of that illness for the rest of her life.

She had a number a careers during her short life: work with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, various entertainment and acting jobs, and possibly prostitution. Three times, she managed to visit South Dakota in search of her roots, but her welcome was cool.

By 1916, Zintka was living in abject poverty. She and her then-husband, who suffered from illness, were trying to make a living in vaudeville. She had had two more children. One died, probably that year, and Zintka gave the other to an Indian woman who was better able to care for him. Later that year, she lost her loving mother, Clara Colby, to pneumonia.

Eventually, Zintka and her husband gave up vaudeville and moved in with his parents in Hanford, Calif., in 1918. Zintka fell ill on Feb. 9, 1920, as an influenza epidemic swept across the nation. On Feb. 14, Valentine’s Day, she died.

Clara Colby tried to raise Zintka as a white girl in an unaccepting society and tried to erase her unceasing attraction to her Lakota culture. In the end, Zintka was rejected by both.

Lost Bird finally came home in 1991, in an effort spurred in part by author Renee Sansom Flood, author of "Lost Bird of Wounded Knee: Spirit of the Lakota." Her grave was found in California and her remains were returned to South Dakota and buried at the grave site at Wounded Knee. Her tragic story led to the organization of the Lost Bird Society, which helps Native Americans who were adopted outside their culture find their roots.

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 1: We call Ourselves the Oyate) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (Introduction)

Chapter 1: We call Ourselves the Oyate - The Oyate are the native people of the upper Midwest, made up of seven tribes and three language (Lakota, Nakota, Dakota) groups. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)


Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

(Cheyenne River, Clifford Canku, Craig Howe, Native American Indian, Jerome Kills Small, language, Ione Quigley, Albert White Hat, SR., Lakota Dancers from Wacipi, Curtis Collection, Lakota Warriors, Bear Butte, Sioux, Lakota, Dakota, Nakota, Culture, miscommunication, Europeans, dialect, Ojibwa, Cree, Nadouessi, snakes people, Nadouessioux, interpreter, misunderstandings, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, OSEUS, OSEUS1, OSEUS2, OSEUS3, OSEUS4, OSEUS5, OSEUS6, OSEUS7)
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 2: The Seven Council Fires) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (Introduction)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 2)

The Seven Council Fires: The seven tribes routinely came together to maintain relationships. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
(OSEUS, OSEUS1, OSEUS2, OSEUS3, OSEUS4, OSEUS5, OSEUS6, OSEUS7)
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 3: The Origins of the People) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1 - land base)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3 - origin, oral philosophy)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5 - oral tradition)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 3)

The Origins of the People: The Oyate peoples’ traditional stories of their origins do not match those of Western science. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 4: Kinship Is Everything) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 4)

Kinship Is Everything: The role of family relationships in organizing Oyate life is paramount. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 5: The Sacred Hoop of Life) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 5)

The Sacred Hoop of Life: The Oyate's view all life as interrelated and express that symbolically through the circle. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 6: The Lakota Way-The Dakota Way) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 6)

The Lakota Way-The Dakota Way: The Oyate people lived in quite different geographical areas and climate, which caused them to live differently. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 7: The Dance of Life) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 7)

The Dance of Life: For the Oyate, music and the arts are very connected to how they experience the world; even their musical instruments have symbolic meaning. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 8: The Oral Tradition of the Oyate) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 8)

The Oral Tradition of the Oyate: Much of Oyate culture has been passed down orally through the generations, including songs, prayers, and storytelling. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 9: The Seven Rituals) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 9)

The Seven Rituals: A very spiritual people, the Oyate practiced many rituals, all of which derive from the receipt of the pipe. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter Number 10: Tiospaye) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 10)

Tiospaye: The extended family—the tiospaye—is central in Oyate society. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter Number 11: The Change) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 11)

The Change: Since their encounter with White settlers, the Oyate people and their cultural practices have undergone significant changes. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter Number 12: The Way Forward) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Chapter 12)

The Way Forward: The Oyate people continue to practice their cultural and spiritual ways in order to maintain their relationships with each other and nature. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Entire Program) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3)
(Essential Understanding 4: OSEUS4)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. Original music composed and performed by Lakota artist, Kevin Locke. (Website)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

Program Synopsis
1. We Call Ourselves the Oyate: The Oyate are the native people of the upper Midwest, made up of seven tribes and three language groups.
2. The Seven Council Fires: The seven tribes routinely came together to maintain relationships.
3. The Origins of the People: The Oyate peoples’ traditional stories of their origins do not match those of Western science.
4. Kinship Is Everything: The role of family relationships in organizing Oyate life is paramount.
5. The Sacred Hoop of Life: The Oyate's view all life as interrelated and express that symbolically through the circle.
6. The Lakota Way-The Dakota Way: The Oyate people lived in quite different geographical areas and climate, which caused them to live differently.
7. The Dance of Life: For the Oyate, music and the arts are very connected to how they experience the world; even their musical instruments have symbolic meaning.
8. The Oral Tradition of the Oyate: Much of Oyate culture has been passed down orally through the generations, including songs, prayers, and storytelling.
9. The Seven Rituals: A very spiritual people, the Oyate practiced many rituals, all of which derive from the receipt of the pipe.
10. Tiospaye: The extended family—the tiospaye—is central in Oyate society.
11. The Change: Since their encounter with White settlers, the Oyate people and their cultural practices have undergone significant changes.
12. The Way Forward: The Oyate people continue to practice their cultural and spiritual ways in order to maintain their relationships with each other and nature.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

Program Interviewees - In large part, this program sought to allow the Oyate people the opportunity to tell their own story. This was accomplished primarily through interviews with a number of South Dakota-based experts in the history and traditions of the people. Clifford Canku, Dakota Studies Instructor at Sisseton Wahpeton College at Sisseton Wahpeton Reservation. Russell Eagle Bear, Tribal Council, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Norris, SD. Dr. Craig Howe, Graduate Studies Instructor, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Jerome Kills Small, Instructor of American Indian Studies, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD. Kevin Locke, Native American Performer, Lakota Performing Arts, Standing Rock Lakota Reservation, Wakpala, SD. Ione Quigley, Chairperson, Lakota Studies at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD. Webster Two Hawk, Three times past Chairman of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Albert White Hat, Sr., Professor of Lakota Language at Sinte Gleska University, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, SD.
Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires (Introduction) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards (Introduction)

Video clip includes the prologue and chapters 1&2.

Chapter 1: We call Ourselves the Oyate - The Oyate are the native people of the upper Midwest, made up of seven tribes and three language (Lakota, Nakota, Dakota) groups.

Chapter 2 - The Seven Council Fires: The seven tribes routinely came together to maintain relationships. (Website)

For six-hundred years we have lived under the misconception that Columbus discovered America. What he did was stumble on a land already occupied by many people and many nations. In the center of that land were a people who call themselves Oyate: “the People”. This is their story, in their words. (Entire Program)

Oceti Sakowin: The People of the Seven Council Fires, offers a broad overview of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota people in South Dakota. Its purpose is to provide a brief introduction to and history of the tribes in the state and their traditional way of life from a tribal perspective.

The Oceti Sakowin program is meant to be used in in-service situations to promote strategic thinking about how to address the specific needs of Native American students as well as curriculum-level thinking and planning about when, where, and what to teach. The purpose of the guide is to offer workshop facilitators a variety of options for using the program in teacher workshops. (Workshop Guide)

Key Concepts
The dominant Western society’s view of Native American history and culture is sometimes in conflict with Native Americans’ own sense of their story. While modern science suggests that the Oyate people migrated to the area that became South Dakota, their traditional beliefs have them originating in this area. The original native people of South Dakota know themselves as the Oyate. The Oyate are composed of three major groups: Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota. Seven tribes comprise those three major groups: Mdewakantonwan, Ihanktonwan, Ihanktonwanna, Sisitonwan, Tetonwan, Wahpetonwan, and Wahpekute. The Oyate people passed on their culture, beliefs, and traditions from generation to generation orally. Their language and stories were not recorded until the late nineteenth century. The Oyate have a rich spiritual life that is still widely practiced through several rituals and that is based in a strong sense of harmony with nature and each other. Oyate groups were organized according to consistent social and gender roles. The Oyate people organized society around extensive kinship systems called tiospaye.

(Cheyenne River, Clifford Canku, Craig Howe, Native American Indian, Jerome Kills Small, language, Ione Quigley, Albert White Hat, SR., Lakota Dancers from Wacipi, Curtis Collection, Lakota Warriors, Bear Butte, Sioux, Lakota, Dakota, Nakota, Culture, miscommunication, Europeans, dialect, Ojibwa, Cree, Nadouessi, snakes people, Nadouessioux, interpreter, misunderstandings, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, OSEUS, OSEUS1, OSEUS2, OSEUS3, OSEUS4, OSEUS5, OSEUS6, OSEUS7)
Selection of the Winter Count Keeper (audio only) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Audio Only - Victor Douville, Sinte Gleska University, explains how the Keeper of the winter count was selected.

Winter Count Lessons

Related lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations, lower left.
Spirit of the Dance: Wacipi South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)

Spirit of the Dance: Wacipi focuses on the dance styles and history of the Northern Plains Indians. Lakota elders, scholars and others share stories of the many dances that are still performed at pow wows (Wacipi) today.

The program features footage of pow wows all over the state, and explores how dance has evolved over the years, as well as the important role of the drum.
Tawapaha Olowan Wan (A Flag Song - S.D.) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Interpretation of Songs (Document)

Tawapaha Olowan Wan (A Flag Song - S.D.)

Each society had a song that used to honor war deeds, values and good deeds. This song was on hand and ended up becoming the SD Flag song, but historically each tiospaye had their own song.

This song is said to have come from many different areas. Many tribes use this Flag song during celebrations or social gatherings. Researched and translated by Earl Bullhead (Nica Ole).(E. Bullhead 2012)

Winter Count Lessons
Traditional use of Tatanka (buffalo) PowerPoint Series ***NOTE***
There are four interactive PowerPoint presentations at the link below. The presentations download very slowly if you choose “Open”. Please select "Save", and save them to your desktop for a quick download. (PowerPoint Presentations)

Traditional use of Tatanka (buffalo) is a 4 part PowerPoint series developed by Badlands National Park and South Dakota Public Broadcasting.

The PowerPoint series includes a brief history of buffalo in South Dakota. Also, there are photos of buffalo parts, like a buffalo hide and tail. Your students are encouraged to guess the traditional use of the buffalo part and its location on the buffalo. Please select one of the PowerPoint presentations below. (PowerPoint version 2002-SP3 or newer is suggested)

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1 - Land Stewardship)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6 - Cause/Effect: Cultural Identity)

Tribes of Dakota: Cheyenne River Reservation - Elders (Audio) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 5: OSEUS5)

SDPB Radio - Tribes of Dakota: Cheyenne River Reservation - Elders (Resources/Entire Series)

Tribes of Dakota is an ongoing project of South Dakota Public Broadcasting to research, explore, uncover, and share the unique history and culture of South Dakota's Native Americans. Perspectives of indigenous people from across the state will be told from the Lakota Elders on the Cheyenne River Reservation, to the Urban Indians in Rapid City and Sioux Falls where they struggle to maintain cultural identity in mainstream society.
Tribes of Dakota: Flandreau Reservation: Casinos (Audio) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Radio - Tribes of Dakota: Flandreau Reservation: Casinos (Resources/Entire Series)

Tribes of Dakota is an ongoing project of South Dakota Public Broadcasting to research, explore, uncover, and share the unique history and culture of South Dakota's Native Americans. Perspectives of indigenous people from across the state will be told from the Lakota Elders on the Cheyenne River Reservation, to the Urban Indians in Rapid City and Sioux Falls where they struggle to maintain cultural identity in mainstream society.
Tribes of Dakota: Pine Ridge Reservation - Spiritual (Audio) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 2: OSEUS2)
(Essential Understanding 3: OSEUS3)

SDPB Radio - Tribes of Dakota: Pine Ridge Reservation - Spiritual (Resources/Entire Series)

Tribes of Dakota is an ongoing project of South Dakota Public Broadcasting to research, explore, uncover, and share the unique history and culture of South Dakota's Native Americans. Perspectives of indigenous people from across the state will be told from the Lakota Elders on the Cheyenne River Reservation, to the Urban Indians in Rapid City and Sioux Falls where they struggle to maintain cultural identity in mainstream society.
Tribes of Dakota: Rosebud Reservation - Domestic Violence (Audio) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Radio - Tribes of Dakota: Rosebud Reservation - Domestic Violence (Resources/Entire Series)

Tribes of Dakota is an ongoing project of South Dakota Public Broadcasting to research, explore, uncover, and share the unique history and culture of South Dakota's Native Americans. Perspectives of indigenous people from across the state will be told from the Lakota Elders on the Cheyenne River Reservation, to the Urban Indians in Rapid City and Sioux Falls where they struggle to maintain cultural identity in mainstream society. (sweat lodge)
Tribes of Dakota: Urban Indians (Audio) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 7: OSEUS7)

SDPB Radio - Tribes of Dakota: Urban Indians (Resources/Entire Series)

Tribes of Dakota is an ongoing project of South Dakota Public Broadcasting to research, explore, uncover, and share the unique history and culture of South Dakota's Native Americans. Perspectives of indigenous people from across the state will be told from the Lakota Elders on the Cheyenne River Reservation, to the Urban Indians in Rapid City and Sioux Falls where they struggle to maintain cultural identity in mainstream society.
Tribes of Dakota: Yankton Sioux - Treaties (Audio) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

SDPB Radio - Tribes of Dakota: Yankton Sioux - Treaties (Resources/Entire Series)

Tribes of Dakota is an ongoing project of South Dakota Public Broadcasting to research, explore, uncover, and share the unique history and culture of South Dakota's Native Americans. Perspectives of indigenous people from across the state will be told from the Lakota Elders on the Cheyenne River Reservation, to the Urban Indians in Rapid City and Sioux Falls where they struggle to maintain cultural identity in mainstream society.
Types of Winter Counts (audio only) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Audio Only - Victor Douville, Sinte Gleska University, explains the different types of winter count.

Winter Count Lessons

Related lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations, lower left
Waniyetu Wowapi: Winter Count (Power Point Presentation) Power Point Presentation - Waniyetu Wowapi: Winter Count, Victor Douville, Sinte Gleska University

“Click” Waniyetu Wowapi Winter Count.pps (lower left in the table below the player) **NOTE** The presentation downloads very slowly if you choose "Open". Please select "Save", and save the PowerPoint presentation to your desktop for a quick download.

Winter Count Lessons

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)
Winter Count Event (audio only) South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Audio Only - Victor Douville, Sinte Gleska University, explains how an event is/was selected for a winter count.

Winter Count Lessons

Related lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations, lower left.
Winter Count Units: K-12 South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

Waniyetu Wowapi (winter count) Units: K-12

“Click” Units Documents (lower left)

Winter Count Lessons
Worksheets: Dakota, Nakota, Lakota Life Worksheets: Dakota, Nakota, Lakota Life

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Word find, crossword puzzle, word scramble and dot-to-dot.
Worksheets

(Resources also found lower left - PDF)

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standard (OSEUS1)

SDSHSLesson
Worksheets: Tatanka (Buffalo) Worksheets: Tatanka (Buffalo)

Provided by the South Dakota State Historical Society

Buffalo word find, crossword puzzle, word scramble and dot-to-dot.
Worksheets

(Lessons also found lower left - PDF)

South Dakota DOE - Oceti Sakowin Essential Understandings and Standards
(Essential Understanding 1: OSEUS1)
(Essential Understanding 6: OSEUS6)

SDSHSLesson

South Dakota Public Broadcasting
Education and Outreach Department
(800) 456-0766 | Edservices@sdpb.org